Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BAKSAL)

Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BAKSAL)
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BAKSAL) was a political front comprising the Bangladesh Awami League, the Communist Party of Bangladesh, the National Awami Party (Muzaffar), and the Jatiyo League.

Following the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of Bangladesh, enacted on 25 January 1975, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman formed BAKSAL on 24 February. In addition, with the presidential order, all other political parties were outlawed with the formation of BaKSAL.

The party advocated state socialism as a part of the group of reforms under the theory of the Second Revolution. BAKSAL was the decision-making council to achieve the objectives of the Second Revolution.

BAKSAL was dissolved after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in August 1975. With the end of BAKSAL, all the political parties that had merged with BAKSAL, including the Awami League, again became independent political parties.


Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his Awami League won a landslide victory in the 1973 Bangladeshi general election. Backing for the government waned, however, as supporters became disillusioned by widespread corruption. In the face of growing unrest, on 28 December 1974, Mujibur declared a state of emergency, which gave him the power to ban any political group. He pushed the Fourth Amendment to the constitution through parliament on 25 January 1975. It dissolved all political parties and gave him the authority to institute the one-party rule.


On 24 February 1975, Mujibur formed a new party, the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BAKSAL), which all MPs were required to join. Any MP who missed a parliamentary session, abstained, or failed to vote with the party would lose their seat. All civilian government employees, professionals, and trade union leaders were pressed to join the party. All other political organizations were banned. Most Awami League politicians and many from other parties joined BaKSAL, seeing no other way to retain any political power. The Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal, Purba Banglar Sarbahara Party, Purbo Bangla Sammobadi Dal-Marxbadi-Leninbadi (East Bengal Communist Party Marxist–Leninist), East Pakistan Communist Party, and Bangladesh Communist Party (Leninist) did not join BAKSAL. According to political science professor Talukder Maniruzzaman, BaKSAL was in practice "the Awami League under a different name".

BaKSAL was scheduled to officially replace the nation's other political organizations, whether those political parties agreed or not, and associations, on 1 September 1975.

Organizationally, President Mujibur Rahman, BaKSAL chairman, appointed for the national party a fifteen-member executive committee, a 120-member central committee, and five front organizations, namely, Jatiya Krishak League, Jatiya Sramik League, Jatiya Mahila League, Jatiya Juba League and Jatiya Chhatra League (peasants, workers, women, youth, and students respectively). All members of the executive committee and central committee were to enjoy the status of ministers. BAKSAL was also designed to overhaul the administrative system of the country to make it people-oriented.

Executive committee

  1. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Chairman)
  2. Syed Nazrul Islam (Vice-Chairman)
  3. Muhammad Mansur Ali (Secretary General)
  4. Abul Hasnat Muhammad Qamaruzzaman
  5. Abdul Mannan
  6. Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
  7. Abdul Malek Ukil
  8. Professor M. Yousuf Ali
  9. Manaranjan Dhar
  10. Muzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  11. Sheikh Abdul Aziz
  12. Mohiuddin Ahmed
  13. Gazi Golam Mostafa
  14. Zillur Rahman
  15. Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani
  16. Abdur Razzaq

Central Committee

  1. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
  2. Syed Nazrul Islam
  3. Muhammad Mansur Ali
  4. Abdul Mannan
  5. Abdul Malik Ukil
  6. Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
  7. A.H.M Kamaruzzaman
  8. Kazi Linchon
  9. Mahmudullah
  10. Abdus Samad Azad
  11. M. Yousuf Ali
  12. Phani Bhushan Majumder
  13. Kamal Hossain
  14. Muhammad Sohrab Hossain
  15. Abdur Rab Serniabat
  16. Manaranjan Dhar
  17. Abdul Matin
  18. Asaduzzanan
  19. Md Korban Ali
  20. Dr. Azizul Rahman Mallik
  21. Dr. Muzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  22. Tofael Ahmed
  23. Shah Moazzam Hossain
  24. Abdul Momin Talukdar
  25. Dewan Farid Gazi
  26. Professor Nurul Islam Choudhry
  27. Taheruddin Thakur
  28. Moslemuddin Khan
  29. Professor Abu Sayeed
  30. Nurul Islam Manzur
  31. KM Obaidur Rahman
  32. Dr. Khitish Chandra Mandal
  33. Reazuddin Ahmad
  34. M. Baitullah
  35. Rahul Quddus (Secretary)
  36. Zillur Rahman
  37. Mohiuddin Ahmad MP
  38. Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani
  39. Abdur Razzaq
  40. Sheikh Shahidul Islam
  41. Anwar Choudhry
  42. Syeda Sajeda Chowdhury
  43. Taslima Abed
  44. Abdur Rahim
  45. Abdul Awal
  46. Lutfur Rahman
  47. A.K. Muzibur Rahman
  48. Dr. Mofiz Choudhry
  49. Dr. Alauddin Ahammad
  50. Dr. Ahsanul Haq
  51. Raushan Ali
  52. Azizur Rahman Akkas
  53. Sheikh Abdul Aziz
  54. Salahuddin Yusuf
  55. Michael Sushil Adhikari
  56. Kazi Abdul Hakim
  57. Mollah Jalaluddin
  58. Shamsuddin Mollah
  59. Gour Chandra Bala
  60. Gazi Ghulam Mustafa
  61. Shamsul Haq
  62. Shamsuzzoha
  63. Rafiqueuddin Bhuiya
  64. Syed Ahmad
  65. Shamsur Rahman Khan Shahjahan
  66. Nurul Haq
  67. Kazi Zahirul Qayyum
  68. Capt.(Retd) Sujjat Ali
  69. M.R. Siddiqui
  70. MA Wahab
  71. Chittaranjan Sutar,
  72. Sayeda Razia Banu
  73. Ataur Rahman Khan
  74. Khandakar Muhammad Illyas
  75. Mong Pru Saire
  76. Professor Muzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  77. Ataur Rahman
  78. Pir Habibur Rahman
  79. Syed Altaf Hossain
  80. Muhammad Farhad
  81. Matia Chowdhury
  82. Hazi Danesh
  83. Taufiq Inam (Secretary)
  84. Nurul Islam (Secretary)
  85. Fayezuddin Ahmed (Secretary)
  86. Mahbubur Rahman (Secretary)
  87. Abdul Khaleque
  88. Muzibul Haq (Secretary)
  89. Abdur Rahim (Secretary)
  90. Moinul Islam (Secretary)
  91. Sayeeduzzaman (Secretary)
  92. Anisuzzaman (Secretary)
  93. Dr. A. Sattar (Secretary)
  94. M.A Samad (Secretary)
  95. Abu Tahir (Secretary)
  96. Al Hossaini (Secretary)
  97. Dr Tajul Hossain (Secretary)
  98. Motiur Rahman. Chairman of Trading Corporation of Bangladesh
  99. Maj. Gen K.M. Safiullah
  100. Air Vice Marshal Abdul Karim Khandker
  101. Commodore M.H. Khan
  102. Maj Gen. Khalilur Rahman
  103. A.K. Naziruddin Ahmed
  104. Dr. Abdul Matin Chowdhury
  105. Dr. Mazharul Islam
  106. Dr. Sramul Haq
  107. Badal Ghosh
  108. ATM Syed Hossain
  109. Nurul Islam
  110. Dr. Nilima Ibrahim
  111. Dr. Nurul Islam PG Hospital
  112. Obaidul Huq Editor Observer
  113. Anwar Hossain Manju Editor Ittefaq
  114. Mizanur Rahman Editor Bangladesh Press International
  115. Manawarul Islam
  116. Abu Thaer Bhuiyan
  117. Brig. A. N. M. Nuruzzaman DG Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini
  118. Kamruzzaman teachers Association
  119. Dr. Mazhar Ali Kadri


Many restrictive regulations coming from BAKSAL included the promulgation of the Newspaper Ordinance (June 1975; Annulment of Declaration) under which the declarations of all but four state-owned newspapers were annulled. The Fourth Amendment was a direct attack on press freedom which allowed only the Dainik Bangla, Bangladesh Observer, The Daily Ittefaq, and Bangladesh Times to continue their publication and banned the rest of the press and newspaper industries. It brought the whole news media completely under the absolute control of the government.


Lawrence Lifschultz wrote in the Far Eastern Economic Review in 1974 that Bangladeshis thought that "the corruption and malpractices and plunder of national wealth" was "unprecedented".

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